# 非营利组织的管理风险与社会服务组织的发展

【摘要】非营利组织在应对各种社会风险方面发挥着重要作用。通过发展各种非营利性社会服务组织来降低人们的生活风险，是现代社会福利事业发展的一个重要问题。在社会服务组织的发展中，加强组织建设，研究非营利组织发展中的管理风险，对于促进社会服务组织的健康发展具有重要意义。本文从非营利组织管理中的风险出发，针对我国社会服务组织发展的局限性，探讨了其运行过程中的管理问题，分析了非营利组织发展中存在的问题。我国营利性组织，为解决社会服务组织管理中的问题提供建议。参考。

【关键词】非营利组织；风险管理;社会服务发展

2008-2009年的全球金融危机深刻反映了现代社会作为风险社会的基本特征，也体现了如何建立应对重大社会风险的社会机制，利用各类非营利组织的力量以减少对人们的风险。日常生活的影响问题被提到要考虑的重要位置。从我国经历的金融危机的影响来看，金融危机给我国经济发展带来了巨大困难，也对我国正面临转型的社会公益事业产生了深刻影响。一方面，这种影响是就业机会减少，许多人失去工作收入，陷入贫困，需要帮助；面对这样的局面，作为社会福利供给的重要组织载体，非营利组织如何发挥募集和分配社会福利资源的作用，帮助金融危机中的人们避免或降低生命风险，不仅是一个重大的社会保障问题。该主题也是一个现实的组织管理主题。本文从非营利组织管理中的风险视角，结合后金融危机对非营利组织发展的要求，针对我国社会服务组织发展的局限性，研究他们在组织运作过程中面临的管理问题。组织建设提供理论支持。

(1）应明确说明其使命和宗旨，阐明其服务对象的需求，并说明其项目的运作方式、项目成本以及这些项目带来的好处。

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(2）应披露有关其管理、财务和运营的正确信息。其运营程序、流程和计划应透明并与其使命和宗旨一致。

(3）应该对其服务的对象、支持者和整个社会负责。

(4）应积极履行使命，代表公众利益，做好管理，注重质量（见文洛克公益管理参考资料系列中的八）。⑤

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

12.9

13.3

14.2

15.3

17.1

19.2

21.2

23

8.2

11.1

12.4

13.5

14.8

16.1

17.4

18.2

954

892

975

1144

1340

1597

Take a case that the has as an . In the of to the urban , a to use small loans to help them start a to the goal of urban . way to . , two years later, the did not its but fell into a . When , we found that this plan did not match the needs of the , and there was a big gap. on the one hand, micro-loans have too many (set to the of funds), and the loan is not for their to their ; on the other hand, loans still have . Risk, they have . In this way, their to in the very low. On the , for them, the of and the of some labor are more needs. After the plan, the ‘s began to more .

In , the of non- is not based on the by , but is by and -based . This not only shows its , but also a of . For , in the whole , the has to meet the needs of two or more : the of the and the needs of the , and the of the and the needs of the . This the whole to be more , more and more . , for most , due to their small scale, low level, and scope of and , it is to meet the of such . , the is . , The poor of the and the of goals have the that many non- often .

To sum up, the faced by the of the of non- . It is of these and that there are many risks in their , and they are to to needs and major such as , , and , as well as to ‘s and meet the needs of ‘s daily life. . to these , non- to solve the they face, and their will play a role in the of non- , the and of , and the of . .

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①②Peter : “The of Non- “, by Wu , , Press, 2007, XIII.

③⑦(23)Huang : ” Work ( )”, , Book Co., Ltd., 2008, p. 5, p. 44, p. 74.

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④Zhan : ” of and “, 2007, in Peter , “The of ” 2, by Wu , , Press, 2007 .

⑤ of Civil , ” of “, see Data 8: ” , , and : and .

⑥(21)Li : “The of Non- ” 1, in Peter , “The of Non- “, by Wu , , Press , 2007.

8 The and is that the the ratio of input to , that is, the or waste of use, while the the as is or not for the of goals. the of the . See Huang : ” Work ” ( ), Book Co., Ltd., 2008, p. 7、 for .

⑨ is an , and the title of the is “civil “. In the of non- , is into three : , non- units and . Among them, are into and non- .

⑩Wang Ming: ” and Trend of in my “, ” “, No. 16, 2009.

(11)Chi Fulin: “Basic in the New Era of and “, in China () for and : “The Road to ‘s “, , China Press, 2008.

(12) non- in China are not .

(13)Since the have not yet on the of these in the , it is to data on them.

(14)(15)(18)(24)Wang Ming, Jia Xijin: “Non- in China: , and ” , of China Paper , 2008.

(16)Sun ‘s of this is: “…the unit is a that , in which and power play a role, the gap the state and the . The role of the state is in: first, the of has an that can the state and of ; , all in the city are in the to the state Among them, the urban is , …; the third is that the unit has the basic for the state to , and at the same time, other such as the have been , so that the of the are to the unit, …; , the unit are used to the of of . w ill lose their if they leave the unit. . . See Sun , “: since the 1990s,” , House, 2003, p. 112.

(17) to the of and for the of . When a non- is , it must be with the , and there must be a ( or ) of it.

(19)(20)(22)(26)Peter : The of , by Wu , , Press, 2007, p. 35, p. 3、7, 139, 85、89.

(25): ” to Non- “, World , time: 2007-06-06.

: of and Work,